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Freetrade UK Treasury bills: what’s on offer, is it any good?

We review the Freetrade UK treasury bill service

Investment broker Freetrade* has launched an intriguing new place to stash your cash: UK treasury bills.

Forget boring old bank accounts and say “meh!” to money market funds.

After the bond fails of 2022, maybe UK treasury bills can offer a safe refuge for your dough while offering a tasty yield?

How does Freetrade’s UK treasury bill service work?

Freetrade is offering investors the facility to purchase 28-day maturity Treasury bills. 

Treasury bills are short-term government debt obligations issued by the UK’s Debt Management Office. 

They count as low-risk securities because they’re backed by the UK Government. As long as the government can repay its loans, then your capital will be returned when your treasury bills mature – plus a little extra for your trouble in the shape of the yield. 

You don’t have to worry about capital losses either. That’s because Freetrade won’t let you sell your bills before maturity. 

Which means Freetrade’s Treasury bill service effectively acts like a savings account with a 28-day fixed-rate. 

But as always, the devil is in the detail. Let’s go find him. 

Buying Treasury bills

The Freetrade UK Treasury bills service operates as a separate account alongside your usual ISA, SIPP, and trading account choices. 

This means your Treasury bill holdings aren’t shielded from tax. (See the tax section below for more.)

You can buy fresh Treasury bills every week when Freetrade participates in the DMO’s Friday auctions. 

The minimum order amount is £50.

You’ll discover if your order is fulfilled and the exact yield you’ll earn the following week. Both those outcomes depend on how the DMO auction pans out. 

As each block of bills you own matures, your capital will be returned along with the yield earned as a cash cherry on top. 

Your money will then be automatically reinvested at the next auction date. 

You can switch off the auto-reinvest setting (or change the amount invested) if you don’t want to lock-up all your loot for another month – though this has implications for your yield. 

Treasury bill yields

The amount you earn on each tranche of Treasury bills depends on the yield they achieved at auction. 

That yield is ultimately a function of the Bank of England interest rate plus market supply and demand for ultra-short UK government debt. 

The DMO publishes treasury bill yields achieved. This can give you a feel for how competitive rates are. 

In practice, yields for one-month bills closely track the prevailing Bank Rate. You can also see that the yields shift as market participants anticipate the Bank of England’s interest rate decisions.  

Yields are quoted as annualised yields. That is, they represent the return you’d make if you held the bill for one-year and compounded the proceeds at the same yield. 

This yield figure can be compared against the Annual Equivalent Rate (AER) offered by a bank account. 

However, your Treasury bills mature after 28 days, not a year. So £1,000 of bills earning a 5% yield won’t earn £50 upon redemption.

Instead, after 28 days, you’ll earn:

£1,000 x 0.051 x 28 / 365 = £3.84

Thus your £1,000 pays out £3.84 after 28 days earning a 5% yield. 

Are Treasury bill yields better than easy-access savings rates? 

The one-month Treasury bill yield beat the best easy-access savings accounts at times throughout the last year. But at other times it fell behind, or there was nothing in it. 

When assessing Treasury bills versus savings accounts, the main negatives are:

  • Treasury bills bought via Freetrade lock-up your cash for a month at a time. 
  • Bills can’t be tax-sheltered in Freetrade’s ISAs or SIPPs
  • Freetrade is set to charge fees from April that’ll knock from 0.1% to 0.45% off your yield. 

Despite these drawbacks, there is still good reason to consider Treasury bills.

Being a rate tart is a drag. Life is too short to spend on keeping up with best-buy tables, and the micro-frictions of account switching. 

Instead you can be satisfied you’ll probably earn a competitive short-term yield with Treasury bills due to the weekly auction process. 

And so you could settle. Keeping some of your spare cash in bills and auto-reinvesting so it’s always working reasonably hard. 

Are Treasury bill yields better than money market fund rates? 

A quick eyeball of current yields for money market funds suggests there’s little to choose between them and one-month Treasury bills. 

The 12 January Treasury bill tender bagged an average yield of 5.18%. That stacks up against one-day yields of 5.17% to 5.33% for our sample of sterling money market funds. 

In both cases, you’ll need to deduct platform fees – and Freetrade’s percentage fee could be costly if you intend to hold large sums in bills. 

You’d also need to deduct the money market fund’s Ongoing Charge and any trading costs. 

On balance I’d expect a money market fund’s yield to share the ongoing ‘best buy’ competitiveness of Treasury bill payouts. So that’s a wash. 

Rather, the upside of Treasury bills versus money market funds is that bills are less risky and more transparent.

We have previously explained the risks with money market funds. For one they typically hold more corporate debt than you might think given their ‘cash-like’ reputation.  

Meanwhile, the main upside of money market funds is they’re easy access and they can be stashed in your tax shelters. 

UK Treasury bill taxation

UK Treasury bill profits are taxable as income

Your yield isn’t paid as interest though. 

Treasury bills are classified as ‘deeply discounted securities’ (DDS) for the purpose of taxation. 

That is, you buy them at a discount to their face value. For example, you may buy £100 worth of bills for £99.60. 

You’ll then receive the full £100 face value when the bills mature. The profit you make from the price uplift represents your yield – around 5% in this case. 

Information on Treasury bill taxation is scanty to say the least. The DMO says:

Although Treasury bills have the same credit risk as gilts – they are sterling denominated unconditional obligations of the UK government – they are not classified as gilts for taxation purposes. Because of this they are covered by the taxation rules which apply to deeply discounted securities. In essence, these specify that if an instrument is issued at a discount of more than 0.5% of its redemption price, (multiplied by the period of a year represented by the maturity of the instrument) they are captured by the deep discount taxation regime. So any profit made by an individual as a result of buying this bill would be charged to income tax as income when realised (i.e. when the bill redeems or is sold on).

HMRC’s tax manual for deeply discounted securities awaits you here. Abandon all hope! 

Monevator reader Roland has pointed us to the Income Tax Act 2007 section 18 which includes profits from deeply discounted securities in its definition of ‘savings income’. 

So it would seem that Treasury bill income can be protected by tax deflectors such as the personal savings allowance and the starting rate for savings. See subsection 3cAn HMRC admin also claims the personal savings allowance does apply.

As always it’s best to consult a tax professional if you’re in doubt.

This isn’t a product widely traded by the general public so no wonder consumer-friendly guidance on the tax position is thin on the ground. 

Freetrade could do its customers a service by stepping into the vacuum and writing up a definitive guide with the help of HMRC or a firm of tax experts.  

As mentioned, Freetrade doesn’t currently enable you to tuck away Treasury bills in SIPPs or ISAs. If that was solved then you wouldn’t have to worry about tax in the first place. 

Risk protection 

Treasury bills are backed by the UK Government. You can assume a default is highly unlikely. 

Intriguingly, the Bank of England’s page on Treasury bills says:

In law it is neither a bill of exchange nor a promissory note, because, being a charge on a particular fund-the Consolidated Fund of the United Kingdom – it is not an unconditional order, or promise, to pay. But the condition of payment implied in the wording of a Treasury Bill, which is only that the Consolidated Fund should be able to meet the payment at maturity, is probably no great deterrent to holders. 

The Consolidated Fund is the Government’s bank account at the Bank of England. (I assume they get breakdown insurance with that.)

This being the UK rather than the US, our system tends to work based on convention and because it always has, rather than because there’s a solemn guarantee tattooed on the Rouge Dragon Pursuivant or written on parchment somewhere…

Are Treasury bills more bombproof than a bank account? It’s easy to assume that the government must sit above a commercial bank in the hierarchy of the national interest. That the QE printing press would always whir to meet short-term debt obligations. 

But governments do default. The UK has defaulted in the past. Our credit rating has been downgraded since the Great Recession, though we’re no basket-case obviously. 

Meanwhile, too-big-to-fail banks were nationalised last time the system buckled in 2008.

And the systemic importance of ensuring people don’t starve probably means that regular old cash is well-protected by the State, up to a point. 

Overall I’m doubtful that opting for Treasury bills amounts to a meaningful advance in risk reduction compared to cash – so long as you stay under the FSCS £85,000 bank deposit limit with the latter. 

The weakest link

On that tip, the FSCS £85,000 investor protection limit applies to Freetrade

If the platform went insolvent, and there was a problem recovering the full balance of your account, then you’d be eligible for £85,000 worth of compensation

This is the main risk to consider when you think about how safe your cash is in UK Treasury bills held with Freetrade

Freetrade UK Treasury bills vs other cash park options

Alright, it’s time to sum up the attractions of Treasury bills versus other cash options:

  Easy access Fixed term Fee (%) Tax-free? Default risk
Treasury bills No 28 days 0.1 – 0.45** No Government, broker
Bank account Yes Yes 0 ISA Bank
Money market funds Yes No 0.1 + platform and trading fee ISA and SIPP Fund provider, broker
Premium bonds Yes No 0 Yes Government

** Fee charged from April. Freetrade’s Standard and Plus customers pay 0.1% per annum and Basic customers pay 0.45%. Freetrade don’t charge trading fees.

Whether Treasury bills leap off this table as your latest must-have asset or not, Freetrade is still to be congratulated for offering retail investors a potentially useful defensive option.

There’s no good reason why the UK public shouldn’t be able to invest in Treasury bills.

And bills fulfil the brief of a decent cash proxy: low-risk, low-volatility, and with little chance of leaving your money to rot on an uncompetitive interest rate. 

But there are issues too – mainly the corrosive impact of fees and taxes. 

Right now Treasury bills are a niche product, but if Freetrade can solve the lack of tax shelter access (especially for SIPPs) then there’s a role for the asset as a money market alternative for the bond shy.   

Take it steady,

The Accumulator

*Freetrade links at the time of posting are affiliate links. Such referrals may earn us a small commission if you choose to sign-up. This hard capitalistic reality hasn’t affected anything we’ve written here though.

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{ 18 comments… add one }
  • 1 Factor January 23, 2024, 12:10 pm
  • 2 Roland January 23, 2024, 12:22 pm

    The legislation is clear in ITA 2007 section 18 (‘Meaning of “savings income”’) that ‘profits from deeply discounted securities’ are counted as Savings Income, thus eligible for the same ITA allowances as Interest (but not necessarily treated the same in other contexts). Two different tax return apps I’ve checked confirm this, and it’s lumped into the same line on SA302 forms.

    What you can do though is put it in a different box on your tax return from bank interest and benefit from an extra rounding down of the pence!

  • 3 Andy January 23, 2024, 12:47 pm

    I think the maths is slightly wrong:
    £1,000 x 0.051 x 28 / 365 = £3.84
    This should be:
    £1,000 x 1.051 ^ (28 / 365) = £1003.82 => £3.82 interest

    Only 2p difference in this small example, but when you start looking at how the re-investment and compounding works, its important.

  • 4 The Accumulator January 23, 2024, 1:09 pm

    @ Roland – that’s brilliant and seems to clear it up. Will amend the piece. Thank you so much.

  • 5 The Investor January 23, 2024, 2:28 pm

    @all — An email SNAFU means that for nearly everyone on the subs list today’s post went into the Spam folder. Hopefully I’ll be able to resend the email tomorrow to those who missed it, with the SNAFU un-FUd. 😉

    So please if you fancy the convo come back tomorrow, as there may be a bit more going on here.

  • 6 Finumus January 23, 2024, 7:59 pm

    Any indication of “why” they don’t offer this in an ISA or SIPP? I appreciate there may be random rules for ISAs, but, SIPPs? You can hold just about anything in them.

  • 7 Pikolo January 23, 2024, 8:23 pm

    @The Investor – Yet another plus for RSS over email – no spam filtering 😀
    I occasionally find the “Easy access” classification too coarse for my liking. Some “easy access” products take 3 business days to withdraw from! Then again, the values in the table would be heavily affected by the particular provider.

    @Finumus I assume they’ve started of with an unsheltered option as a Proof of Concept, as it probably has less things to track and they want to start out with lower volumes

  • 8 William January 24, 2024, 8:59 am

    Thank you for reviewing this product.

  • 9 PC January 24, 2024, 9:18 am

    Really interesting. Thank you.

    Govt t-bills are usually regarded as risk free, so I’d expect the yield to be lower than the alternatives. It also looks like more work. Not possible in a SIPP or ISA currently.

    I’m interested but it won’t work for me.

  • 10 The Accumulator January 24, 2024, 9:32 am

    @ PC – Yes, based on risk, I’d expect a money market fund would pay slightly more all things being equal. But I’d rather be in Treasury bills in a crisis.

    @ Finumus – I don’t have any special insight but I get the impression it’s a soft launch. If successful I’d guess they’d offer longer-dated bills and safe harbour in tax shelters.

    Just treated myself to a quick look at the list of qualifying investments for stocks and shares ISAs:
    https://www.gov.uk/guidance/stocks-and-shares-investments-for-isa-managers#qualifying-investments-for-stocks-and-shares-isas

    Government securities are qualifying investments if they’re:
    gilt-edged securities (“gilts”)
    gilt strips
    securities issued by or on behalf of a government of the UK or the government of any EEA State
    strips of securities issued by or on behalf of a government of the UK or the government of any EEA State

    So it doesn’t explicitly say Treasury bills but you’d think they’d be eligible as ‘securities issued by or on behalf of a government of the UK’. You’d think.

    FWIW the DMO describe say “Treasury bills are zero-coupon eligible debt securities.”

  • 11 PC January 24, 2024, 10:10 am

    @The Accumulator

    Surely government bills should be just as eligible as government notes or bonds. It’s just a naming convention based on the maturity up to 2 years, up to 10 years, over 10 years.

    and yes I’d like to be holding t-bills in a real crisis

  • 12 The Accumulator January 24, 2024, 12:04 pm

    Hi PC – I came across something that specifically said bills aren’t gilts. Can’t remember if that was on the DMO site or in one of the tax manuals. Certainly when it comes to tax I’m inclined to tread very carefully and want to be sure of how HMRC define a security. The recent furore over fractional shares ISA eligibility comes to mind as an example of how a ruling can defy common sense and practice. Still, I’m reassured by Roland’s find on bills re: Income Tax Act 2007.

  • 13 vortexgently January 24, 2024, 2:18 pm

    ““meh!” to money market funds”
    Are market funds much worse since last summer? I remember reading everywhere how money was flowing into market funds.

  • 14 Valiant January 24, 2024, 9:28 pm

    Thanks. Interesting alternative to consider. Can’t quite think it’s worth the hassle to apply, when the edge over money market or just buying short-dated gilts is so slight.

    May I ask a general question: are there any other investing sites as good as this? It’s certainly the only one I pay for, and I never make any investments without researching here first.

    Is it really so head and shoulders above the rest?

  • 15 The Investor January 25, 2024, 11:57 am

    @Valiant — Gulp! Thanks very much. Without wanting to brag, our high email open rates and low unsubscribes suggest people do value Monevator.

    On the other hand, we’re still below (though getting close to) our minimum viable target for sign-ups to membership. So ‘value’ is a mutable concept in 2024.

    On which note, thanks for becoming a Maven! It’s hugely appreciated.

    Okay, off-topic aside over. 😉

  • 16 PC January 25, 2024, 1:25 pm

    @Valiant I’ve learned so much from this site, not just the articles, the comments too. It’s why I subscribe.

    I’ve not found anything better. The Motley Fool in the early days of the internet, is the only thing I’d compare it with. (Not now).

    https://www.moneysavingexpert.com/ can be useful but of course is much more general.

  • 17 ZXSpectrum48k January 25, 2024, 5:48 pm

    Unlike many countries, UK T-bills are not, technically, promissory notes. So unlike Gilts, they are not securities. Hence the different tax treatment. They are just charges against the govt’s current account (called the Consolidated Fund). General taxation goes in and spending comes out of the Fund, with T-bills used to manage the liquidity position when there are timing mismatches between inflows and outflows. Basically they fund the current account’s overdraft until Gilts are issued to fund the actual deficit.

    As T-bills are not really used for structural deficit financing, issues sizes are quite modest compared to other global T-bill markets and can be somewhat ad hoc. Hence T-bills are a relatively small market with very low liquidity compared to Gilts. Unlike US T-bills, this makes them not as useful for money market funds. Instead, UK money market funds will tend to use short-dated Gilts, commercial paper and term repos.

  • 18 Koala January 27, 2024, 8:01 pm

    What struck me is that once every 28days your money might be out of the market for up to a week until the next auction, unless they time things so they reinvest it instantly into the next auction. That could also reduce the effective rate you receive.

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